Anyone can file for a dispute if they find something wrong with their credit report. This action will not affect their credit scores directly. However, if the assumed wrong information is proven correct then that might take a toll on your credit score. 

Now if you want to know the reason why your credit score has been affected depends on what you are disputing about. Here’s an example to help you better understand it. 

Late payments have a negative impact on credit scores; but if the late payment was mistakenly reported on your credit report, and through the dispute process you had the incorrect information removed, then your credit scores will improve significantly. On the other hand, if after the dispute, it was found that the late payment recorded in your credit report is correct and you had raised a wrong dispute, then your scores could see a small dip. 

Additional Reading: What are the factors that affect your credit score?

Any negative information on your credit report can cause your scores to sink. But there is certain information on your credit report that has zero impact on your credit scores, such as identification and address information. If you file a dispute, to change or correct this type of information, it does not affect your credit scores.

Generally it takes about 30 days for a dispute to be resolved. You can log in to your respective credit rating agency account and see how your dispute has affected your credit scores. 

Additional Reading: What you can expect after signing up for Credit Improvement ?